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Publications of the Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Health Project (WMLH) and the Wisconsin Study of Families and Work (WSFW)

Dr. Marilyn Essex and Dr. Janet Hyde, Co-Directors

Phase 1

1) Parental Leave

Clark, R., Hyde, J.S., Essex, M.J., & Klein, M.H. (1997). Length of maternity leave and quality of mother-infant interactions. Child Development, 68 , 364-383.

Essex, M.J., & Klein, M.H. (1991). The Wisconsin Parental Leave Study: The role of fathers. In J.S. Hyde & M.J. Essex (Eds.), Parental leave and child care: Setting a research and policy agenda. (pp. 280-293). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Hyde, J.S. (1995) Women and maternity leave: Empirical data and public policy. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19, 299-313.

Hyde, J.S., & Clark, R. (1991). The Wisconsin Parental Leave Study: Maternity leave and the health of women and their families. In J.S. Hyde & M.J. Essex (Eds.), Parental leave and child care: Setting a research and policy agenda. (pp. 269-279). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Hyde, J.S., & Essex, M.J. (1991). Parental leave and child care: Setting a research and policy agenda. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Hyde, J.S., Essex, M.J., Clark, R.C., & Klein, M.H. (2001) Maternity leave, women’s employment, and marital incompatibility. Journal of Family Psychology, 15 , 476-491.

Hyde, J.S., Essex, M.J., & Horton, F. (1993). Fathers and parental leave: Attitudes and experiences. Journal of Family Issues, 14, 616-641.

Hyde, J.S., Essex, M.J., Clark, R., Klein, M.H. & Byrd, J.E. (1996). Parental leave: Policy and research, Journal of Social Issues, 52 (3), 91-109.

Hyde, J.S., Klein, M.H., Essex, M.J., & Clark, R. (1995). Maternity leave and women's mental health. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19, 257-285.

Hyde, J.S., & McKinley, N.M. (1993). Beliefs about the consequences of maternal employment for children: Psychometric analyses. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 177-191.

Hyde, J.S., & Peterson, J.L. (2007). Parental Leave. In M. Haith & J. Benson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of infant and early childhood development. Elsevier.

Klein, M.H., Hyde, J.S., Essex, M.J., & Clark, R. (1998). Maternity leave, role quality, work involvement and mental health one year after delivery. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22, 239-266.


2) Pregnancy through Two Years Postpartum

Byrd, J.E., Hyde, J.S., DeLamater, J.D., & Plant, E.A. (1998). Sexuality during pregnancy and the year postpartum. Journal of Family Practice, 47, 305-308.

Chaudron, L.H., Klein, M., Remington, P., Palta, M., Allen, C. & Essex, M.J. (2001). Predictors, prodromes and incidence of postpartum depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 22, 103-112.

Clark, R. (1999). The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment: A factorial validity study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59, 821-846.

Durik, A.M., Hyde, J.S., & Clark, R. (2000). Sequelae of cesarean and vaginal deliveries: Psychosocial outcomes for mothers and infants. Developmental Psychology,36, 251-260.

Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., & Clark, R. (2003). Breastfeeding, bonding, and the mother-infant relationship. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49, 495-517.

Gittleman, M.M., Klein, M.H., Smider, N.A., & Essex, M.J. (1998). Recollections of parental behavior, adult attachment, and mental health: Mediating and moderating effects. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1443-1455.

Grych, J., & Clark, R. (1999). Maternal employment and development of the father-infant relationship in the first year. Developmental Psychology, 35, 893-903.

Hyde, J.S., & DeLamater, J.D. (2000). Sexuality during pregnancy and the year postpartum. In C.B. Travis & J.W. White (Eds.), Sexuality, society, and feminism. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Hyde, J.S., DeLamater, J.D., & Hewitt, E. (1998). Sexuality and the dual-earner couple. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 354-368.

Hyde, J.S., DeLamater, J.D., Plant, E.A., & Byrd, J.M. (1996). Sexuality during pregnancy and the year postpartum. The Journal of Sex Research, 33, 143-151.

Katz-Wise, S., Hyde, J. S., & Priess, H. (2010). Gender-role attitudes and behavior across the transition to parenthood. Developmental Psychology, 46, 18-28.

Klein, M.H., & Essex, M.J. (1995). Pregnant or depressed? The effect of overlap between symptoms of depression and somatic complaints of pregnancy on rates of major depression in the second trimester. Depression, 2, 308-314.

McKinley, N. M. & Hyde, J. S. (2004). Personal attitudes or structural factors? A contextual analysis of breastfeeding duration. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 388-399.

Monk, T.H., Essex, M.J., Smider, N.A., Klein, M.H., Lowe, K.K. & Kupfer, D.J. (1996). The impact of the birth of a baby on the time structure and social mixture of a couple's daily life and its consequences for well-being. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1237-1258.

Vandell, D.L., Hyde, J.S., Plant, E.A., & Essex, M.J. (1997). Fathers and "others" as infant-care providers: Predictors of parents' emotional well-being. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 43, 361-385.


Phase 2

3) The Preschool Years

Aksan, N., Goldsmith, H.H., Smider, N.A., Essex, M.J., Clark, R., Hyde, J.S., Klein, M.H., & Vandell, D. (1999). Derivation and prediction of temperamental types among preschoolers. Developmental Psychology, 35, 958-971.

Boyce, W.T., Essex, M.J., Alkon, A., Smider, N.A., Pickrell, T., & Kagan, J. (2002). Temperament, tympanum, and temperature: Four provisional studies of the biobehavioral correlates of tympanic membrane temperature asymmetries. Child Development, 73, 718-733.

Essex, M.J., Goldsmith, H.H., Smider, N.A., Dolski, I., Sutton, S.K., & Davidson, R.J. (2003). Comparison of video- and EMG-based evaluations of the magnitude of children’s emotion-modulated startle response.Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 35, 590-598.

Gagne, J.R., Van Hulle, C.A., Aksan, N., Essex, M.J., & Goldsmith, H.H. (2011). Deriving childhood temperament measures from emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes: Scale construction and initial validation. Psychological Assessment, 23, 337-353.

Hyde, J.S., DeLamater, J.D., & Durik, A.M. (2001). Sexuality and the dual-earner couple part II: Beyond the baby years. Journal of Sex Research, 38, 10-23.

Hyde, J. S., Else-Quest, N. M., Goldsmith, H. H., & Biesanz, J. C. (2004). Children’s temperament and behavior problems predict their employed mothers’ work functioning. Child Development, 75, 580-594.

Lemery, K., Essex, M.J., & Smider, N.A. (2002). Revealing the relation between temperament and behavior problem symptoms by eliminating measurement confounding: Expert ratings and factor analyses. Child Development, 73, 867-882.

Luby, J.L., Essex, M.J., Armstrong, J.M., Klein, M.H., Zahn-Waxler, C., Sullivan, J., & Goldsmith, H.H. (2009). Gender differences in emotional reactivity of depressed and at risk preschoolers: Implications for gender specific manifestations of preschool depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 525-537.

Schreiber, J.E., Shirtcliff, E., Van Hulle, C., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Klein, M.H., Kalin, N.H., Essex, M.J., & Goldsmith, H.H. (2006). Environmental influences on family similarity in afternoon cortisol levels: Twin and parent-offspring designs. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 1131-1137.

Vasquez, K., Durik, A.M., Hyde, J.S. (2002) Family and work: Implications of adult attachment styles. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 874-886.

4) The Transition to School

Alkon, A., Goldstein, L.H., Smider, N., Essex, M.J., Kupfer, D.J., & Boyce, W.T. (2003). Developmental and contextual influences on autonomic reactivity in young children. Developmental Psychobiology, 42, 64-78.

Boyce, W.T., Essex, M.J., Woodward, H.R., Measelle, J.R., Ablow, J.C., & Kupfer, D.J. (2002). The confluence of mental, physical, social, and academic difficulties in middle childhood: I. Exploring the “headwaters” of early life morbidities. Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41 , 580-587.

Boyce, W.T., Quas, J., Alkon, A., Smider, N.A., Essex, M.J., & Kupfer, D.J. (2001). Autonomic reactivity and psychopathology in middle childhood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 144-150.

Burk, L.R., Park, J.H., Armstrong, J.M., Klein, M.H., Goldsmith, H.H., Zahn-Waxler, C., & Essex, M.J. (2008). Identification of early child and family risk factors for aggressive victim status in first grade, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 513-526.

Ellis, B.J., Essex, M.J., & Boyce, W.T (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: II. Empirical explorations of an evolutionary-developmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 303-328.

Essex, M.J., Klein, M.H., Miech, R., & Smider, N.A. (2001). Timing of initial exposure to maternal major depression and children's mental health symptoms in kindergarten. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 151-156.

Essex, M.J., Boyce, W.T., Goldstein, L.H., Armstrong, J.M., Kraemer, H.C., & Kupfer, D.J. (2002). The confluence of mental, physical, social, and academic difficulties in middle childhood: II. Developing the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire. Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 588-603.

Essex, M.J., Klein, M.H., Cho, E., & Kalin, N.H. (2002). Maternal stress beginning in infancy may sensitize children to later stress exposure: Effects on cortisol and behavior. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 776-784.

Essex, M.J., Klein, M.H., Cho, E., & Kraemer, H.C. (2003). Exposure to maternal depression and marital conflict: Gender differences in children’s later mental health symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42 , 728-737.

Essex, M.J., Armstrong, J.M., Burk, L.R., Goldsmith, H.H., & Boyce, W.T. (2011). Biological sensitivity to context moderates the effects of the early teacher-child relationship on the development of mental health by adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 149-161.

Goldsmith, H.H., Aksan, N., Essex, M.J., Smider, N. A., & Vandell, D. (2001). Temperament and socioemotional adjustment to kindergarten: A multi-informant perspective. In T. Wachs & D. Kohnstamm (Eds.), Temperament in context. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kraemer, H.C., Measelle, J.R., Ablow, J.C., Essex, M.J., Boyce, W.T., & Kupfer, D.J. (2003). A new approach to integrating data from multiple informants in psychiatric assessment and research: Mixing and matching contexts and perspectives. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160 , 1566-1577.

Manian, N., Papadakis, A.A., Strauman, T.J., & Essex, M.J. (2006).  The development of children’s ideal and ought self-guides:  Parenting, temperament, and individual differences in guide strength. Journal of Personality, 74, 1-27.

Mezulis, A.H., Hyde, J.S., & Clark, R. (2004) Father involvement moderates the effect of maternal depression during a child’s infancy on child behavior problems in kindergarten. Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 575-588.

Miech, R., Essex, M.J., & Goldsmith, H.H. (2001). Socioeconomic status and the adjustment to school: The role of self-regulation during early childhood. Sociology of Education, 74 , 102-120.

Smider, N.A., Essex, M.J., Kalin, N., Buss, K., Klein, M.H., Davidson, R., & Goldsmsith, H.H. (2002). Salivary cortisol as a predictor of socioemotional adjustment during kindergarten: A prospective study. Child Development, 73, 75-92.

Phase 3

5) The Elementary School Years

Boyce, W.T., Essex, M.J., Alkon, A., Goldsmith, H.H., Kraemer, H.C., & Kupfer, D.J. (2006). Early father involvement moderates biobehavioral susceptibility to mental health problems in middle childhood. Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 1510-1520.

Burk, L.R., Armstrong, J.M., Park, J.H., Zahn-Waxler, C., Klein, M.H., & Essex, M.J. (2011). Stability of early identified aggressive victim status in elementary school and associations with later mental health problems and functional impairments. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 225-238.

Ellis, B.J., & Essex, M.J. (2007). Family environments, adrenarche, and sexual maturation: A longitudinal test of a life history model. Child Development, 78, 1799-1817.

Ellis, B.J., Shirtcliff, E.A, Boyce, W.T., Deardorff, J., & Essex, M.J. (2011). Quality of early family relationships and the timing and tempo of puberty: Effects depend on biological sensitivity to context. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 85-99.

Essex, M.J., Kraemer, H.C., Armstrong, J.M., Boyce, W.T., Goldsmith, H.H., Klein, M.H., Woodward, H., & Kupfer, D.J. (2006).  Exploring risk factors for the emergence of children’s mental health problems. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 1246-1256.

Essex, M.J., Kraemer, H.C., Slattery, M.J., Burk, L.R., Boyce, W.T., Woodward, H.R., & Kupfer, D.J. (2009). Screening for childhood mental health problems: Outcomes and early identification. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 562-570.

Essex, M.J., Shirtcliff, E.A., Burk, L.B., Ruttle, P.L., Klein, M.H., Slattery, M.J., Kalin, N. H., & Armstrong, J.M. (2011). Influence of early life stress on later hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning and its covariation with mental health symptoms: A study of the allostatic process from childhood into adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 1039-1058.

Hyde, J.S., Else-Quest, N.M., Alibali, M.W., & Knuth, E. (2006). Mathematics in the home: Homework practices and mother-child interactions doing mathematics. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 25, 136-152.

Mezulis, A.H., Hyde, J.S., & Abramsom, L.Y. (2006). The developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression: Temperament, parenting, and negative life events. Developmental Psychology, 42, 136-152.

Monk, T.H., Burk, L.R., Klein, M.H., Kupfer, D.J., Soehner, A.M., & Essex, M.J. (2010). Behavioral circadian regularity at age 1-month predicts anxiety levels during school-age years. Psychiatry Research, 178, 370-373.

Park, J.H., Essex, M.J., Zahn-Waxler, C., Armstrong, J.A., Klein, M.H., & Goldsmith, H.H. (2005). Relational and overt aggression in middle childhood: Early child and family risk factors. Early Education and Development, 16: 233-257.

Shirtcliff, E.A., Allison, A.L., Armstrong, J.M., Slattery, M.J., Kalin, N.H., & Essex, M.J. (in press). Longitudinal stability and developmental properties of salivary cortisol levels and circadian rhythms from childhood to adolescence. Developmental Psychobiology.

Silver, R.B., Measelle, J.R., Armstrong, J.M., & Essex, M.J. (2005). Trajectories of classroom externalizing behavior: Contributions of child characteristics, family characteristics, and the teacher-child relationship during the school transition. Journal of School Psychology, 43: 39-60.

Silver, R.B., Measelle, J.R., Armstrong, J.M., & Essex, M.J. (2010). The impact of parents, child care providers, teachers, and peers on early externalizing trajectories. Journal of School Psychology, 48, 555-583.

Slattery, M.J., & Essex, M.J. (2011). Specificity in the association of anxiety, depression, and atopic disorders in a community sample of adolescents. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45, 788-795.

Phase 4

6) The Adolescent Years

Anderson, S. F., Salk, R. H. & Hyde, J. S. (2015). Stress in romantic relationships and adolescent depressive symptoms: Influence of parental support. Journal of Family Psychology, 29, 339-348.

Burk, L.R., Armstrong, J.M., Goldsmith, H.H., Klein, M.H., Stauman, T.J., Costanzo, P., & Essex, M.J. (2011). Sex, temperament, and family context: How the interaction of early factors differentially predict adolescent alcohol use and are mediated by proximal adolescent factors. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 25. 1-15.

Charbonneau, A.M., Mezulis, A.H., & Hyde, J.S. (2009). Stress and emotional reactivity as explanations for gender differences in adolescents' depressive symptoms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 1050-1058.

Cole, D.A., Cai, L., Martin, N.C., Findling, R.L., Youngstrom, E.A., Garber, J., Curry, J.F., Hyde, J.S., Essex, M.J., Compas, B.E., Goodyer, I.M., Rohde, P., Stark, K.D., Slattery, M.J., & Forehand, R. (2011). Structure and measurement of depression in youth: Applying item response theory to clinical data. Psychological Assessment 23, 819-833.

Cole, D. A., Cho, S., Martina, N. C., Youngstrom, E. A., March, J. S., Findling, R. L., Compas, B. E., Goodyer, I. M., Rohde, P., Weissman, M., Essex, M. J., Hyde, J. S., Curry, J. F., Forehand, R., Slattery, M. J., Felton, J. W., & Maxwell, M. A. (2012). Are increased weight and appetite useful indicators of depression in children and adolescents? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 838-851.

Cox, S., Mezulis, A., & Hyde, J. S. (2010). The influence of child gender role and maternal feedback to child stress on the emergence of the gender difference in depressive rumination in adolescence.  Developmental Psychology,46, 842-852.

Essex, M.J., Boyce, W.T., Hertzman, C., Lam, L., Armstrong, J.M., Neumann, S.M.A., & Kobor, M.S. (in press). Epigenetic vestiges of early developmental adversity: Childhood stress exposure and DNA methylation in adolescence. Child Development.

Essex, M.J., Klein, M.H., Slattery, M.J., Goldsmith, H.H., & Kalin, N.H. (2010). Early risk factors and developmental pathways to chronic high inhibition and social anxiety disorder in adolescence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 40-46.

Grabe, S. & Hyde, J.S. (2009). Body objectification, MTV, and psychological outcomes among female adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39, 2840-2858.

Grabe, S., Hyde, J.S., & Lindberg, S. (2007). Body objectification and depression in adolescents: The role of gender, shame, and rumination. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31, 164-175.

Harackiewicz, J. M., Rozek, C. S., Hulleman, C. S., & Hyde, J. S. (2012). Helping parents motivate their adolescents in mathematics and science: An experimental test. Psychological Science,

Hilt, L.M., Armstrong, J.M., & Essex, M.J. (in press). Early family context and development of adolescent ruminative style: Moderation by temperament. Cognition and Emotion.

Hyde, J. S., Canning, E. A., Rozek, C. S., Clarke, E., Hulleman, C. S., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2017). The role of mothersí communication in promoting motivation for math and science course-taking in high school. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 27, 49-64.

Hyde, J. S., Mezulis, A. H., & Abramson, l. Y. (2008).  The ABCs of depression: Integrating affective, biological, and cognitive models to explain the emergence of the gender difference in depression. Psychological Review, 115, 291-313.

Katz-Wise, S., Budge, S., Lindberg, S. & Hyde, J. S. (2013). Individuation or identification? Self-objectification and the mother-adolescent relationship. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 37, 366-380.

Lindberg, S.M., Grabe, S., & Hyde, J.S. (2007). Gender, pubertal development, and peer sexual harassment predict objectified body consciousness in early adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17, 723-742.

Lindberg, S.M., Hyde, J. S., & Hirsch, L. M. (2008). Gender and mother-child interactions during mathematics homework: The importance of individual differences. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 54, 232-255.

Lindberg, S.M., Hyde, J.S., & McKinley, N.M. (2006). A measure of objectified body consciousness for pre-adolescent and adolescent youth. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30: 65-76.

Mezulis, A.H., Funasaki, K., & Hyde, J. S. (2011). Negative cognitive style trajectories in the transition to adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40, 318-331.

Mezulis, A. H., Priess, H. A., & Hyde, J. S. (2010). Rumination mediates the relationship between infant temperament and adolescent depressive symptoms.  Depression Research and Treatment, 2011, (online, open access, doi:10.1155/2011/487873)

Mezulis, A. H., Salk, R., Hyde, J.S., Priess-Groben, H., & Simonson, J. (2014). Affective, biological, and cognitive predictors of depressive symptom trajectories in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 539-550. DOI 10.1007/s10802-013-9812-2

Petersen, J. & Hyde, J.S. (2009). A longitudinal investigation of peer sexual harassment victimization in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 1173-1188.

Petersen, J. & Hyde, J. S. (2013). Peer sexual harassment and disordered eating in early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 49, 184-195.

Petersen, J. L. & Hyde, J. S. (2017). Trajectories of self-perceived math ability, utility value, and interest across middle school as predictors of high school math performance. Educational Psychology, 37, 435-456.

Price, M. N. & Hyde, J. S. (2009). When two isn’t better than one: Predictors of early sexual behavior in adolescence using a cumulative risk model. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 1059-1071.

Price, M. N. & Hyde, J. S. (2011).  Perceived and observed maternal relationship quality predict sexual debut by age 15.  Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 1595-1606.

Priess-Groben, H. & Hyde, J. S. (2013). 5-HTTLPR X stress in adolescent depression: Moderation by MAOA and gender. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 281-294. DOI 10.1007/s10802-012-9672-1.

Priess-Groben, H. & Hyde, J. S. (2016). Implicit theories, expectancies, and values predict mathematics motivation and behavior across high school and college. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,

Priess, H., Lindberg, S. & Hyde, J.S. (2009). Adolescent gender-role identity and mental health: Gender intensification revisited. Child Development, 80, 1531-1544.

Rozek, C. S., Hyde, J. S., Svoboda, R. C., Hulleman, C. S., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2015). Gender differences in the effects of a utility-value intervention to help parents motivate adolescents in mathematics and science. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107, 195-206.

Rozek, C. S., Svoboda, R. C., Harackiewicz, J. M., Hulleman, C. S., & Hyde, J. S. (2017). Utility-value intervention with parents increases studentsí STEM preparation and career pursuit. PNAS,

Salk, R. H., Petersen, J. L., Abramson, L. Y., & Hyde, J. S. (2016). The contemporary face of gender differences and similarities in depression throughout adolescence: Development and chronicity. Journal of Affective Disorders, 205, 28-35. NIHMS 801180

Shirtcliff, E., & Essex, M.J. (2008). Concurrent and longitudinal associations of basal and diurnal cortisol with mental health symptoms in early adolescence. Developmental Psychobiology, 50, 690-703.

Svoboda, R. C., Rozek, C. S., Hyde, J. S., Harackiewicz, J. M., & Destin, M. (2016). Understanding the relationship between parental education and STEM course taking through identity-based and expectancy-value theories of motivation. AERA Open, 2, 1-13.

Watt, H. M. G., Hyde, J. S., Petersen, J., Morris, Z., Rozek, C., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2017). Math - A critical filter for STEM-related career choices? A longitudinal examination among Australian and U.S. adolescents. Sex Roles,


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